What kinds of leather are there?
Natural size capillary leather
Natural hair fine leather mainly includes fox, mink, lynx, and badger. It has a larger sheet and is often used to make high-end children’s hats, coats, and cloaks.
Natural small capillary leather mainly includes sable, mink, squirrel, ferret, etc. The quilt is short and soft, suitable for high-end children's coats, hats, scarves, shawls, etc.
Natural coarse fur
Commonly used natural coarse fur leathers include sheepskin, dog skin, wolf skin, leopard skin and so on. The hair is long and has a larger spread. It can be used to make hats, coats, vests, linings, etc.
Artificial leather is made by mixing various types of chemical fibers. The artificial fur has a larger breadth. It can be dyed into various bright colors; in addition, it has the appearance of animal fur, and various wild and farmed fur species can be imitated. But its biggest feature is that it is not environmentally friendly, not easy to degrade, and pollutes the environment.
Only the best leather in the world can be classified as leather modified with dyes that do not use pigments but only with aniline effect. People who like genuine natural products especially like this kind of leather. 5% of the world's leather production falls into this category, and only some A-level leather meets this category's standards. This kind of leather does not have any finishing, and may only be coated with a thin layer of wax or lightly coated with a layer of oil to enhance the feel and beauty. Softening or polishing with a machine is usually the final finishing process for this type of leather.
Like pure aniline leather, only some of the best leather in the world can be classified in this category. The only difference between it and pure aniline leather is that the raw material used will be a little lower, with only a thin protective layer on the surface, usually coated with wax and transparent pigments.
This kind of leather requires a little more processing, and the surface has a little finishing. The paint is gently sprayed on the surface of the leather to make the color uniform and conceal some original flaws. This leather has good light resistance and scratch resistance, and is easy to clean. 10-15% of the world's leather production belongs to this type of leather. Most B-grade leather meets the standards of this category. Interestingly, aniline, semi-aniline and pure aniline leather are not necessarily full-grain leathers. Nubuck leather is a typical fully polished aniline leather. Many discolored leathers are first cleaned and smoothed with sandpaper gently.
Part of the grain surface is abraded to reduce the effect of grain flaws, and then a pseudo-grain surface is created through different finishing methods to imitate the leather of a full-grain leather. 18% of the world's leather production belongs to this type of leather. This kind of leather has undergone a lot of processing, such as: frosting, polishing, embossing, and painting to conceal the original flaws. Insect bites, wire mesh scratches, and corner wounds can be removed by frosting before painting. The first layer of leather is a grained outer layer of leather, about 0.9 to 1.5 mm. The leather called Grade C meets the standards of this category. This kind of leather obviously needs sanding, because it has no purpose other than artificially creating a fake grain to replace the original surface. The remaining 65% of world leather production is not suitable for furniture and can only be used for shoes, clothes, belts, handbags and car seat cushions.
The grain pattern remains intact, and the natural pores and texture of the leather are clearly visible.
Just as the grain, wood and markings of wood should show the natural color of the tree to which it belongs, leather should also show the characteristics of the animal it belongs to. The better the leather, the less modification is required. The original grain of the cheaper leather is polished and painted, and embossed to replace the fake grain. They are not as soft as full-grain leather. Although it is covered by a layer of paint, the original texture changes are still visible.
Only part of the grain layer of the leather is lightly polished off, but the unabrasive part of the grain should remain on the entire leather surface, and natural pores and texture of leather can still be seen on the grain surface. Since the word "Top顶" is used in English, this term has become the most confusing term in the leather industry. People guess that "Top顶" means the best and top, but not here. The word "Top顶" is used here because the top layer can be frosted, painted and printed. Basically, half-grain leather is not split leather.
Cut the skin into several layers, the one with the grained surface is called the first layer of skin, the following are the second layer of skin, the three layer of skin, and the one with the fleshy surface layer is the fleshy layer of split skin. Using modern technology, it is possible to paint, paint and emboss the split leather suitable for furniture. Of course split skins are not as durable as scalp skins, but you can get interesting results by adjusting their thickness. The most challenging thing is to make them flexurally resistant. Unless otherwise specified, the split leather that is generally painted cannot be used as a seat cushion.